Electricity use in Indian homes – from lights, ceiling fans, televisions, refrigerators, among other appliances – has increased 50 times between today and 1971, even though India’s per capita residential electricity consumption is less than a third of the world average. Residential electricity now outpaces growth in industrial, commercial and agriculture sectors.This striking statistic is on the increase, as India moves towards one of the largest urban transitions in history in the coming decades. What is the implication of this transition for household electricity use, as the urban population grows and income levels rise? What do we know about how electricity is currently used in homes across the country? And what drives our dramatically changing consumption patterns? These questions form the basis of a series on residential electricity consumption, jointly authored by the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi and the Prayas (Energy Group), Pune. The collected insights that formed the series are complied in this document.
This series was translated and published by Eklavya in their Hindi magazine Srot (Vigyan evam technology features). This translation is available in the link given below.
Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) is arguably the world’s largest zero-subsidy LED bulb programme for households. UJALA’s popularity has spurred Energy Efficiency Services Ltd. (EESL), its implementing agency, to use the programme model to sell energy efficient ceiling fans and air-conditioners. We systematically studied the varied impacts and processes of the UJALA programme to draw lessons for increasing its effectiveness and aid the design of similar future programmes in India and abroad.
Our analysis shows that UJALA has succeeded in creating a large and sustainable market for LED bulbs in India. Demand for LED bulbs has increased manifold and the retail market price (for the LED bulbs sold beyond UJALA) has dropped by a third. A number of other indicators point to the sustainability of the LED bulbs market. The demand for LED bulbs has replaced the demand for CFLs rather than incandescent bulbs. Going ahead, EESL should target low income households and small commercial establishments who are still buying incandescent bulbs. The streamlined procurement processes and innovative marketing campaigns from the UJALA model can be used for other appliances as well. Stricter monitoring and evaluation mechanisms should be incorporated in the programme design to ensure the quality of the appliances, compliance of various processes, proper disposal of old appliances, and realistic calculation of achieved savings.
NITI Aayog published a Draft National Energy Policy in June 2017 and invited comments. Following are the comments submitted by PEG for the same.
Eastern Power Distribution Company of Andhra Pradesh (APEPDCL) and Southern Power Distribution Company of Andhra Pradesh (APSPDCL) submitted petitions to the Andhra Pradesh Electricity Regulatory Commission (APERC) to approve a cumulative replacement of 1,00,000 5 HP in-efficient agriculture pumps with 5 star pumps in their respective territories. DISCOMs will invest in the programmes and Energy Efficiency Services Ltd. (EESL) will provide the project management consultancy. EESL prepared detailed project reports for both the programmes including a baseline study conducted in Rajanagaram and the programme design. APERC approved both the programmes after conducting public hearings.
Prayas submitted comments on the baseline study and the design of the programme with a focus on monitoring and evaluation. Most of our comments focused on ensuring that data on actual savings achieved is recorded periodically and the processes related to warranty and, repair and maintenance (R&M) are followed strictly. A number of these comments were included in the APERC orders. Prayas’ comments on the APSPDCL petition and the links to the APERC orders can be found below.
Order on APEPDCL's programme - http://www.aperc.gov.in/aperc1/assets/uploads/files/643b4-pumpsets.pdf
Order on APSPDCL's programme - http://www.aperc.gov.in/aperc1/assets/uploads/files/73bdc-sp_pumpsets.pdf
The residential electricity consumption (REC) has increased by 50 times since 1971 and now forms about a quarter of India’s total electricity consumption, up from about 4% in 1971. It is expected to grow further due to rapid electrification, increasing household incomes, and technology development. A better understanding of REC patterns and the factors affecting it is essential for designing effective and credible energy efficiency programs, optimized planning of capacity addition, and better adapting to the rapidly changing business models and technologies in the Power sector. In this report, we provide an overview of the current understanding of REC in India by analysing data from various sources like census, surveys, and distribution companies (DISCOM) and reviewing the available literature on the topic.
The electricity sector is undergoing a transformation as it transitions from a static sector that is planned and operated by central authorities—regulators, utilities, system operators, and planners—to one that is increasingly driven by a mix of technologies, decentralized operators, and new market mechanisms and reforms.
These changes are creating an environment of genuine uncertainty in which many challenges arise, along with new opportunities for electricity sector planners and regulators to meet the goal of reliable, sustainable and universal electricity access. This report looks at experiences from four developing countries - Brazil, China, India, and Kyrgyzstan, and two developed countries - Germany and the United States to help electricity planners and utilities gain from the international experience. The way in which the sector stakeholders respond and engage with these emerging trends globally will ultimately determine the development pathway of the future grid.
India needs a broad, coherent strategy for energy efficiency to reduce its carbon emission intensity and enhance its energy security. This article breifly describes four key points that can shape this strategy. It appeared in the Hindu Business Line on 2nd Decemeber, 2015.
Improving end-use energy efficiency to meet the ever increasing electricity demand in India is the most economical option available to us today. Part of the end use demand could be met without having the need to increase the supply, thereby reducing the costly power procurement for DISCOMs. These benefits have led to some Demand Side Management (DSM) activities in the state as well as at the national level. State governments, DISCOMs, state designated agencies, BEE, electricity regulators have undertaken several activities to promote DSM. This report presents an overview of DSM activities in eight states (Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal). The objective of the report is to increase awareness of civil society organizations, facilitate interstate learning and recommend a strategy to scale up DSM activities based on the review.
Energy efficiency levels for the Standards and Labeling (S&L) program in India for frost free (FF) refrigerators are compared with similar programs in China, United States of America (USA), and European Union (EU). A normalization method developed by International Energy Agency (IEA) is adopted with India as a benchmark for comparison. It is observed that the energy consumption level corresponding to minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) is very high in India. India also lags behind other countries on the consumption level corresponding to highest efficiency rating. Also, the range of consumption levels corresponding to a label is wide which dilutes the efficacy of label. India has aggressively proposed to tighten the ratings for FF refrigerators in 2014 by 36% across all the bands. This measure will make its highest efficiency rating comparable to other countries. However, due to the wide gap in the consumption levels across the ratings, the revised MEPS will still lag behind other countries. One possible outcome of high MEPS is that as the ratings are tightened, the market may move to lower star rated models significantly undermining the tightening effect.
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Despite keen interest shown by Indian policymakers and significant efforts to enhance energy efficiency of the Indian economy, progress has been limited. Initial efforts laudably sought to be comprehensive and cover all sectors and sub-sectors. However, it resulted in the limited human and financial resources being spread too thin resulting in sluggish progress in improving energy efficiency. In addition, several of the approaches tried have not been directly applicable in India because of the challenges of limited institutional capacity and human resources. India should reorganize its efforts, and develop a targeted and tailored strategy based on three principles: (1) Target efforts at areas where they will bring about the biggest reductions in energy use (“maximum bang for the buck”); (2) Design EE policies and plans to achieve a radically higher level of implementation; and (3) Design programs creatively to succeed under the challenging policy and implementation environment. An approximate estimation of the potential savings in existing and new additions in various consumer categories highlights the importance of new additions particularly in the commercial buildings sector, and the relative importance of the different categories. As an example of a tailored and targeted strategy, the paper describes the development of a program for super-efficient appliances that is expected to be appropriate for the Indian environment. The paper is intended to add to the discourse on rapid improvement in energy efficiency not only in India, but also in other developing countries that face similar challenges of limited human and financial resources.
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